Nitrogen (N) is an essential element for all life. Although Earth’s atmosphere is mostly nitrogen in the form of di-nitrogen gas (N2 gas), this form is not readily available for plants and animals. Early in the history of life, some microorganisms evolved the ability to convert atmospheric nitrogen into a biologically-reactive form through a process called nitrogen fixation. This process is a major component of the global nitrogen cycle and has been extensively studied in open-ocean and terrestrial ecosystems. Yet, nitrogen fixation rates and ecological controls remain virtually unknown for the inland and coastal aquatic ecosystems that connect terrestrial and marine biomes due to the diversity of these habitats and the disconnect between scientists studying nitrogen fixation. The Aquatic Nitrogen Fixation Research Coordination Network will develop an ecological framework for understanding nitrogen fixation across aquascapes by organizing scientists studying nitrogen fixation across the freshwater to marine continuum. Network activities will improve the quality of scientific discovery and training for graduate students and early career scientists across diverse fields of science.